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FujiFilm - Cynata's First Licensee Of Its Lead Product CYP-001 In GvHD

FujiFilm - Cynata's First Licensee Of Its Lead Product CYP-001 In GvHD
The terms
According to the ASX announcement dated 17 September 2017 the terms are as follows:
FujiFilm Holdings Corporation (FujiFilm) is granted an exclusive, worldwide license to develop and commercialise Cynata Therapeutics (Cynata) lead mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) product, CYP-001, for the prevention and treatment of GvHD in human so Cynata will receive US$3m cash from Fujifilm as an upfront fee. [note pfeifer1982HC: prompting a payment of US$10,000 to Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF) as part of the license agreement with Cynata, see below]
o Fujifilm will bear responsibility for all costs of any further product development activities in relation to GvHD, along with responsibility for regulatory submissions and commercialisation.
o The non-dilutive upfront payment of US$3m will lengthen Cynata’s cash runway and support further investment in the upcoming Phase 2 trials in critical limb ischemia (“CLI”) and in osteoarthritis, along with other potential future clinical programs.
o Cynata will potentially receive additional future milestone payments from Fujifilm totalling up to US$43m based on successful attainment of certain industry standard product development and commercial milestones, the first of which is US$2m on completion of the first Phase 2 clinical trial in USA, UK or Japan. Subsequent milestones are completion of Phase 3 clinical trials (US$3m), submission of applications for regulatory approvals (US$12m), acceptance of geographic marketing authorisations and first sales (US$16m) and extending the indication (US$10m). [note pfeifer1982HC: of which 30% will likely be payable to Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF) as part of the license agreement with Cynata, see below]
o Cynata will receive a 10% royalty on all future product sales if the licensed product is successfully commercialised in any country in which any licensed patents are granted or pending. o Having sub-licensed certain patent rights licensed-in from the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (“WARF”) in respect of Cynata’s Cymerus™ technology to Fujifilm, Cynata will be required to make a one-off cash payment to WARF of US$10,000. Cynata is also required to pay WARF a mid-single digit percentage royalty on Fujifilm product sales and 30% of other amounts received from Fujifilm, including in respect of milestone payments.
o Both Fujifilm and Cynata have rights to terminate the license under certain conditions such as material breach and bankruptcy and failure to use reasonable efforts to achieve certain specified milestones. The agreement also includes limited mechanisms for potential royalty adjustment on termination of the WARF Head License, entry of a generic competitor or in-licensing third party enabling technology.
• Fujifilm and Cynata will enter into a separate agreement for the supply of product by Cynata for certain future product development activities at cost plus a moderate doubt digit manufacturing margin
• The endorsement by Fujifilm of Cynata’s Cymerus platform supports the continued commercialisation of Cynata’s cell therapeutic products in other indications, including CYP002 for critical limb ischemia (CLI) and CYP-004 for osteoarthritis
To facilitate Cynata’s ongoing partnering efforts certain amendments have been made to the license agreement between Cynata and WARF, particularly in relation to sub-sublicensable sub-licenses under the WARF patents and extending certain interim development milestones, whilst not changing the current milestone for obtaining approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Agency (or an equivalent foreign agency) in 2026.
[The last paragraph provided an explanation on the delay back in March, when the Licence Option was meant to be executed]

A deal that required a lot of patience from investors
In September 2016, FujiFilm and Cynata signed a Non-binding Development and Commercialisation Term Sheet. It anticipated that, under a definitive agreement, Cynata will grant FUJIFILM an option to an exclusive, worldwide licence to market and sell Cynata’s lead MSC product for prevention and treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), as well as (a) an option to negotiate a licence for manufacturing those products, and (b) certain rights to Cynata’s proprietary Cymerus™ technology for the prevention and treatment of other diseases.
FujiFilm even provided an earnings projection CYP-001 in GvHD back in their December 2016 presentation. Unfortunately, I can't get my hands on the that presentation anymore, as the FujiFilm website has been re-done since and my original link is now dead.
The much anticipated FujiFilm announcement in January 2017 caused a bit of disappointment amongst investors, as FujiFilm didn't sign a licence agreement, instead FujiFilm and Cynata signed a Development and Commercialisation Partnership Agreement aka a Licence Option Agreement to an exclusive, worldwide licence to market and sell Cynata’s lead MSC product, CYP-001, in the field of prevention and treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). As part of that, FujiFilm also took a A$3.97 million strategic equity stake in Cynata.
Over the next two years, FujiFilm wasn't shy of having its representatives talk to various newspapers. It was a bit surreal, as it sounded like they have already taken up the license, when in fact it was "only" an option to take it up.
January 2017, Junji Okada, Director, Corporate VP & GM of Corporate Planning Headquarters and Pharmaceuticals Products Divs., FujiFilm Holdings Corporation, in an interview published in "Weekly Diamond"'s January Edition with the title "FujiFilm pushing into regenerative medical business" (sorry, my links are dead but against a few that article is still available via their website):
"[...]
Get a challenge right to become a main player
We have elemental technologies cultivated with film. In the field of regenerative medicine, there are no companies in the world who have established a firm position yet. As a pharmaceutical manufacturer, we are "chase after". Even if imitating after the major and keeping up, profitability is not good and efficiency is bad. If you go out early in areas where no one is doing, you will gain the challenge of becoming a main player.
We are steadily striking the foundation necessary for regenerative medicine . Mostly it is acquisition. We are holding down all three major elements (cell, medium, scaffold) in regenerative medicine. I think that business can be deployed comprehensively just by regenerative medicine. Then you get inquiries from various places and information comes in, so you can further lead the industry.
- I am aiming for the first domestic company trial in transplant medical treatment using iPS cells in 19 years.
It is the impression that we are finally getting into the stage of business. Since I do it, I want to honor the first domestic. There is also a pride that it is a top runner in the field of regenerative medicine.
[...]
Earn "one-third" in healthcare centering on regenerative medicine
[...]
- The policy of M & A in the future.
Whether there is synergy or not is not important, but it is important. We will continue to focus on focusing areas such as image diagnosis and regenerative medicine.
- Healthcare is currently about 20% to Fujifilm HD sales. If regenerative medicine is going to grow steadily in the future, Fujifilm may be called a "medical company" day.
Other business will grow as well (laugh). I will not say how many years, but I will aim at healthcare to account for about one-third of HD sales."
To avoid altering any facts, I did not make any changes to the spelling, wording etc. What you see is exactly how it got translated using Google Translate.
In September and October 2018 FujiFilm talked to Nikkei Asia, leading to two separate articles to then be published:
Two great articles with lots of information regarding the technology, anticipated timeline/s, market opportunity, Cynata's Phase 1 trial, FujiFilm's plans in the US etc., way too much to quote on here.
Still in October 2018, an article with the title iPS-derived mesenchymal stem cells, next year at the prospect Japan-US clinical trial Fujifilm, etc. was published on nikkan.co.jp stating the following:
"The MSC used in Phase 2 trials is supplied from the United States, but in the future, it is also considering production at Japan Tissue Engineering (J-TEC) of the Fujifilm Group."
Also, in October during an FCDI presentation at The Cell & Gene Meeting on the Mesa, Nick Manuso, Senior Vice President FujiFilm Cellular Dynamics, Strategy and Business Development, had the following remarks on his presentation slides:
"Leading the field of breakthrough cellular therapies using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)
- Phase II - Graft Versus Host Disease with Cynata Therapeutics [...]"
together with a comment of Cynata's CEO Ross Macdonald at the top right corner (1:10 mins). To watch the presentation on YouTube, click here.
Ken-ichiro Hata, Deputy Director BioScience & Technology Development Center, Fujifilm Corporation Japan Tissue Engineering Co., Ltd. (J - TEC), Representative Director and President, for example in December 2018 said the following:
"There are many walls that must be overcome in order to make organs from iPS cells, but research and development of cell therapy using iPS cells is progressing steadily. CDI also supplies iPS cells to the Australian regenerative medical venture in the Fujifilm Group and contributes to the world's first iPS cell clinical trial in the UK. This is to inject a mesenchymal stem cell (* 3) made from iPS cells and treat it for patients with complications that occur after leukemia bone marrow transplantation. And Fujifilm will do the same clinical trial in Japan, as a company in 2019 for the first time. If approval from the country is obtained, I would like to sell it to medical institutions as a formulation."
Also in December 2018, FujiFilm was quoted saying:
Fujifilm announced on Wednesday that it will establish a facility for production of artificial pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) for treatment in Wisconsin State, USA. Investment amount is about 2.5 billion yen. It is intended to accelerate the development of regenerative medicine products using iPS cells and to operate it in FY 2019.
Fujifilm plans to apply for a clinical trial (clinical trial) for obtaining approval of transplantation medicine by iPS cells from the country in Japan during FY 2018. We plan to conduct clinical trials in the United States.
A US subsidiary is set up as a production facility, and introduction of cultivation equipment and so on corresponding to the quality control standards of US authorities. Rapidly develop regenerative medical products in the fields of Parkinson's disease, heart disease, cancer by iPS cells produced. We also assume production contracts from other companies.
In January 2019 FujiFilm mentioned Cynata and its Phase 1 clinical trial in GvHD a total on a total of five pages across their presentation with the title Pharmaceuticals, Bio CDMO and Regenerative Medicine Business:
Source: FujiFilm Holdings Investor Presentation 15 January 2019
Source: FujiFilm Holdings Investor Presentation 15 January 2019
Source: FujiFilm Holdings Investor Presentation 15 January 2019
Source: FujiFilm Holdings Investor Presentation 15 January 2019
Source: FujiFilm Holdings Investor Presentation 15 January 2019
Cynata's unofficial anthem among investors at the time was Beyonce's "If you like it then you should have put a ring on it"...
Whilst the licence option agreement is with the parent company FujiFilm Holdings, we still had the existing partnership with FCDI, who also mentioned us when announcing an investment of US$21 million to open a new cGMP-compliant*1 production facility with the goal of industrializing iPS cell manufacturing for regenerative medicine therapies.
FujiFilm decided to also advertise the world's first clinical trial using iPS cells a few times in Science Magazine a few times, here is a sample of the full page advertising from March 2019:
Source: Science Magazine Digital
After the initial "deadline" for the Licence Option Agreement to run out in March 2019 and Doomsday Preppers start hording food and toilet paper preparing for the End of the World as we know it, Cynata extended the Option Agreement (see ASX announcement here and here) to then finally execute it on 17 September 2019 with the terms outlined above (praise the Lord...).
A few months before, 4 July 2019 to be exact, FujiFilm released its latest "NEVER STOP" campaign commercial. At 1:56 min you can see the Cynata world-first reference (English translation at the very bottom).
In October 2020 FCDI updated its website. Although FCDI is not the licensee of our technology and therefore CYP-001 does not (currently) form part of FCDI's own pipeline, Cynata now gets a mention there under partnerships:
Source: FujiFilm Cellular Dynamics

Background on CDI
FujiFilm has entered this space with a BANG the year before (30 March 2015), by announcing to acquire Cellular Dynamics International, Inc.'s (CDI) - a leading developer and manufacturer of fully functioning human cells in industrial quantities to precise specifications - issued and outstanding shares of common stock for US$16.5 per share or approximately US$307 million (on a fully diluted basis). The offer represented a premium of 108% to CDI's closing price on 27 March 2015.
The Story Behind Cellular Dynamics’ Sale to Fujifilm is one of a leader in a newly establised space (more info here), founded in 2004 by University of Wisconsin-Madison professor and stem cell pioneer James Thomson. that has built a steady business manufacturing living human cells in massive quantities. The technology is based on induced pluripotent stem cells: taking tissue from donors, CDI’s scientists coax the cells back to an embryonic-like state, then direct them to turn into desired cell types such as neurons and heart, liver, and retinal cells. The technology has applications in drug toxicity testing, cell banking, and the development of experimental cell-based therapies that could in theory heal or regrow body parts.
Despite showing increasing revenue, CDI was still in the red. With the pressure of having to repay a credit facility mounting and having all other options already explored, it was FujiFilm's opportunity to step in and up with what was deemed a more or less satisfactory offer given the current circumstances.
The acquisition was finalised in May 2015.

The perfect partner
Fujifilm, founded in 1934, has transformed itself into a company covering prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. As a comprehensive healthcare company, Fujifilm therefore saw the revolutionary treatments that regenerative medicine could offer as a key part of its mission.
An important factor in Fujifilm’s decision to enter this field was the company’s extensive portfolio of technologies, many of which seemed applicable to regenerative medicine. One example is photographic film, which was Fujifilm’s core product at the time of its foundation and for many years thereafter. Film is a precision chemical product that integrates color-producing reagents and nearly 100 different chemical compounds in total in an ultra-thin layer just 20 micrometers thick. To produce photographic film requires technologies that control many different chemical reactions on a microscopic scale. By coincidence, 20 micrometers is about the diameter of a single liver cell. Fujifilm’s technologies for controlling microenvironments appeared to have extraordinary potential in the world of regenerative medicine.
Fujifilm also possessed a wealth of knowledge about collagen, a protein that is one of the main components of photographic film. In regenerative medicine, collagen plays a critical role in growing cells and restoring tissues. To fulfill demand for the highest quality photographic film possible, Fujifilm had refined a wide range of collagen-based technologies, including methods for processing and controlling the protein, which is extremely sensitive to such environmental parameters such as moisture and temperature. Fujifilm saw a clear opportunity to leverage its collagen technologies in this exciting new field.
After its acquisition of Cynata's sister company CDI back in 2015, FujiFilm is leveraging world-leading iPSC development and production technologies to create an iPSC bank that comprises iPSCs for use in researching various diseases and conditions, which put them in a unique position to evaluate Cynata's Cymerus™ manufacturing platform as it utilises the very same iPSCs manufactured by their (now) subsidiary CDI through a licensing agreement with Cynata back in September 2014.
Having access to information that is not in the public domain, hence also not available to other companies in this space. Aiming to be recognized worldwide as a leader in regenerative medicine, Fujifilm will continue to move forward with this extremely important challenge and given that they are considering iPSCs to be the key to regenerative medicine, it came as no surprise that FujiFilm was the first one to make a move to become our licensee (CYP-001 in GvHD) in addition to also being the supplier of the iPSC starting material for Cynata's Cymerus™ MSC manufacturing platform. MSCs are among the most frequently used cell type for regenerative medicine with currently over 1,000 clinical trials initiated around the world for a wide range of diseases.
Just like Cynata's approach of developing a therapeutic platform in reverse (see here), FujiFilm positioned itself over the years as a "self-contained" leader in the regenerative medicine sector in general and a pioneer in the iPSC sector in particular by building on their existing photo technology, expanding and continuously transforming it by acquiring factories and know-how needed for any expected future needs, incorporate them in your existing business structure to then leverage on their expertise.
FUJIFILM Holdings Corporation has 317 consolidated subsidiaries as of March 31, 2020.
I'm not going to list all 317 consolidated subsidiaries now, don't worry. But lets just have a look at a few of them:
Japan:
The Americas:
Europe:
Asia & Others:
Feel free to check them out yourself to see that they are all amongst the leaders (if not THE leader) in their space.
That is vertical integration par excellence if you ask me!
Many investors, especially the ones NOT invested in Cynata might say the terms are not that exciting, being able to call a well-connected conglomerate such as FujiFilm with a Market Capital of US$20 billion your partner, has many perks including but not limited to having access to this vertically integrated, in-house regenerative medicine behemoth which also includes a advertising/marketing and distribution machinery "on steroids", that are worth multiples of the actual figures of the Licence Agreement currently in place. Remember, FujiFilm had a vital advantage over other companies in this space due to its unique position as mentioned above.
Although it might take a while for such a heavyweight to move, according to Newton's First Law of Motion, once it moves, it is also more difficult for it to stop.
I'm looking forward to what the future holds!
submitted by pfeifer1982HC to CynataTherapeutics

Build purchasing reference guide

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This guide is meant to be a general overview of purchasing the main components in a computer setup. I apologize for any typos, this was all typed up from my phone.
This table contains general percentages for allocating your budget on each component of an average mid-tier build. Increasing the tier, you will increase the CPU, GPU, RAM, and storage percentages. Lowering the tier, you will decrease the others. The "Total1" column is for if you're only factoring in the PC itself. "Total2" is for if you're factoring in peripherals/accessories. These percentages account for a Total1 of $1000-$1200 USD, and a Total2 of $1900-$2100 USD.
Item Total1 Total2
GPU 30 17
GPU 20 12
Motherboard 15 10
PSU 10 5
Storage 10 5
Case 10 5
RAM 5 5
Monitor 18
Keyboard 5
Mouse 5
Headphones 5
Speakers 5
UPS 5

GPU

Stands for graphics processing unit. Also known as video card, graphics card, graphics accelerator, etc. It is the majority of your cost because it is the biggest determining factor in rendering and displaying what is on the screen. A gaming computer will need a high core count and clock speed for rendering scenes. A workstation computer will need high VRAM (video memory) to retain what is being rendered.
Low-tier GPUs can range from $150-$250 USD. Mid-tier GPUs will be $250-$500. High-tier GPUs can go all the way up to $2000 or more (workstation cards are significantly more). It is reccomendable to buy them secondhand.

CPU

Stands for central processing unit. It is what runs processes and various tasks or applications. A fast GPU will be meaningless if it has to wait for the CPU to catch up, but generally all current mid-tier CPUs will be capable of running any GPU to a reasonable degree. Core count, IPC (instructions per clock), clock speed, TDP and cache size are the main important factors. More cores allow for better multitasking, try to get at least 6. Hyperthreading or multithreading is a way of treating one physical core as two. An 8 core, 8 thread CPU is better than a 4 core, 8 thread CPU of similar quality. TDP is the amount of power the CPU will draw. A higher TDP means more heat. At a certain point, stock coolers will no longer suffice. When it comes to that, you can choose between air or water cooling. Air cooling is cheaper and has less parts to break, so it typically lasts much longer, and can be fixed by simply replacing the fans. Water cooling is much more effective, but takes up more space and the water eventually needs to be replaced. Water cooling can be a closed loop (referred to as AIO - all in one), or an open loop (referred to as custom loop). The finer details of water cooling is an entire topic of its own, more details about it here.
Low-tier CPUs can range from $100-$150 USD. Mid-tier CPUs will be $150-$300. High-tier CPUs go up to $3000 or more. It is reccomendable to buy them secondhand.

Motherboard

The main board that connects all components together. The socket MUST be the exact same as your CPU. Intel and AMD are not compatible, and even within the same brand, some generations use different sockets. The chipset also must be compatible, but they are slightly more lenient. Some older chipsets will need their BIOS updated to be compatible with newer chips. Ensure that your motherboard has all the ports/connectors you want, and that it will fit in the case you want. For enthusiast overclocking, mosfets, VRMs, chipsets, and cooling of those parts are very important. For standard use or light overclocking, it isn't of drastic importance.
Low-tier boards can range from $50-$100 USD. Mid-tier boards will be $100-$220. High-tier boards can go up to $1200 or more. Buying secondhand is reccomendable, but be careful for those who may have abused their boards with careless overclocks. They can still be functional but may be worn out.

PSU

Stands for power supply unit. Rule 1 of building a PC, never cheap out on a power supply. A bad PSU can at worst blow up in flames, or at best ruin the performance/lifespan of your other components. First and foremost, always get the proper wattage for your computer. Never go below, and always try to leave headroom. A PSU has an efficiency curve that starts to lose efficiency past 75%-80% of its maximum power draw. Very low power draws also have lower efficiency, so there's no need to buy a 1500w PSU for a 300w system. Lower efficiency means higher heat output, too. The main concerns aside from wattage are your connectors, the 80+ rating, and safety features. 80+ rating is the efficiency rating of the PSU. Go for a Bronze rating or better, and look up reviews to make sure it is a reputable brand.
Low-tier PSUs can range from $40-$80 USD. Mid-tier PSUs will be $80-$200. High-tier PSUs can go up to $600 or more. I would not reccomend buying them secondhand, as you have no idea how the previous owner was using them, and you don't want your PSU to be unreliable.

Storage

The devices that hold your data long-term, not to be confused with RAM, which only holds memory for an active task short-term. HDDs (hard disc drives) typically come in 3.5" and 2.5" sizes. Their speed is measured by their disc's rotational speed, typical speeds are 5400rpm and 7200rpm. The faster a disc spins, the faster it can read data, but better cache or controllers will affect the transfer speed as well. SSDs (solid state drives) are the non-mechanical, non-moving counterparts to HDDs. They are SIGNIFICANTLY faster, shock resistant, and silent. M.2 NVMe drives are slightly faster than regular SSDs, and more compact. Not all M.2 drives are NVMe, though! As of now SSDs are much pricier than HDDS. Do not buy an SSD without DRAM (cache) on it, they drop in performance drastically after a short run. SLC, MLC, TLC, etc are -- simply put -- how the cells are read. Higher forms like TLC and QLC can store more data, but the ability to read cells fails faster. Often, people will buy a small SSD for their boot drive, and a large HDD for storage, to get the best of both worlds. Make sure you consistently defrag HDDs and never defrag SSDs.
Storage pricing can be very misleading, because some very bad drives cost more than better drives. Expect to pay about $0.03 USD per gigabyte for a HDD, and about $0.14 per gigabyte for an SSD. Do not buy secondhand. You have no way of knowing how long the drive has been used or if it was taken care of.

Case

Picking a case comes down to preference of style. Just ensure that it will fit your GPU, motherboard, PSU, and CPU cooler. Make sure any front ports or drive bays you want are included. Look at where the cable management ports are, and watch videos of people building in it to see what implications or shortcomings it may have. Look up reviews of its airflow as well.
Low-tier cases can range from $30-$60 USD. Mid-tier cases will be $70-$180 USD. $200 and above is generally high-tier, but some crappy cases can be in the higher price range as well. Buying secondhand is reccomendable, but you may find vital parts missing.

RAM

Stands for random access memory. RAM (often called memory) is what holds the short-term data for active tasks being run. Having more RAM has a bigger impact than having faster RAM. A frequency speed of 2933MHz is standard for Intel, 3200MHz is standard for Ryzen. CAS latency also affects the speed, here's a helpful chart. Always check compatibility lists before buying RAM. Even if it works, you may not get the advertised performance if it isn't fully compatible. Sometimes it may work just fine and simply hasn't been verified yet, but that's a gamble. ALWAYS buy at least two sticks of RAM for dual-channel. Four sticks is somewhat less stable with Ryzen, especially the eariler generations. Motherboards have two configurations that also impact the memory configuration speed, but that comes down to nitpicking.
Low-tier RAM can range from $3-$4 USD per gigabyte. Mid-tier RAM can range from $4-$5 per gigabyte. High-tier RAM can range from $5 upward to $50 per gigabyte! Buying secondhand is reccomendable.

Monitor

A good monitor is vital to fulfilling the purpose of an enthusiast PC, regardless of price range. A small screen on a workstation, or a slow response time on a gaming pc, or a poor picture quality on an artist's pc make the entire point of it a waste. The main specs to look at are resolution, size, and panel type. The secondary main specs to look for are response time, refresh rate, brightness, and frame sync. Speakers in monitors are terrible, so you shouldn't pay too much worry about if your monitor comes with them. VESA mount option is a thing to check for as well, if you plan to get an aftermarket stand. For screen size and resolution, I did a short post about it a while ago. Try not to go over 32", or else you'll be craning your neck to see the sides unless you sit far away. 1920×1080p is a standard minimum today, 1440p is a sweet spot, and 4k is the standard premium option. The most common current panel types are TN, IPS, VA, and OLED. TN is very fast and has high contrast, but has poor viewing angles and color accuracy (referred to as gamut). You'll see TN with higher refresh rates and lower response times, it's a good choice for competitive gaming and is generally cheaper. IPS has much better colors and viewing angles, but is a bit slower. It is a better choice for artists, movies, cinematic games, things of that nature. Their main downside is the backlight bleed, contrast, and ghosting. VA panels are kind of an in-between of TN and IPS, they also suffer "smeary" blacks during movement. OLEDs are the premium option, they have brilliant colors, and don't suffer the problems of lighting zones, allowing for pure blacks. They come at a high cost, and older models are plagued with problems. Make sure you look at reviews before pulling the trigger on one. Response time is how quickly an image displays. Beyond 5ms starts to feel a bit sluggish on gaming, but some people don't mind it. Refresh rate is how many images are displayed in a second. 60Hz is the standard minimum, 120Hz and above is good. Brightness should be at least 250 cdm2 or 500 nits, higher is better. Frame sync is called GSync by Nvidia, which is only compatible with their cards, or freesync, which works with both AMD and Nvidia. Frame sync allows the gpu to put out frames in sync with your monitor, making things look much smoother. VSync is another setting in games that usually isn't great.
Low-tier monitors will be around $80-$120 USD. Mid-tier will be around $120-$220. High tier monitors can go easily above $1000-$2000. Buying secondhand is reccomendable, but be wary of screen burn in.

Keyboard

A good keyboard is important to prevent fatigue, and as the front and center piece of a setup, it naturally is the most eye candy. Mechanical keyboards are the go-to option for enthusiasts currently. Mechanical keyboards get the name from their mechanical key switches, which are greatly more durable than rubber dome or chiclet keys, and the keys can easily pop off to be cleaned or replaced. Even between brands, there are options for actuation force (how hard you have to press), clickiness (how loud it is), and actuation distance (how far you have to press it). Mechanical keyboards are the more expensive option, but you can find cheaper ones like Redragon. More info on mechanical switches here and here. The main aspects to look for aside from key type/brand are the keyboard's build material and the size. An aluminum body will be more rigid, but noisier. A plastic body is softer, quieter, and louder. There are different types of plastic for keys, most commonly ABS or PBT. Size is in reference to if it has a numpad on the side, function keys up top, or spacing between sections of keys. Each category is reffered to as a percentage. 60% or tenkeyless is the most common for small form factor, it is just without a numpad or function keys. Mechanical keyboards have many more finer aspects to them, and can be a deep rabbithole like audiophile products. Try not to get carried away! Aside from mechanical keyboards, you will find
Low-tier mechanical keyboards can range from $20-$60 USD. Mid-tier keyboards can be between $60-$160. High-tier keyboards can be anywhere up to the thousands sometimes, but generally they will fall around $200-$400. Buying secondhand is reccomendable, though you may need to clean them.

Mouse

Things to look for in a mouse are weight, size, sensor type, connection type, and battery (if wireless). The lower the weight is, the easier it is to move and the less strain you will have on your wrist. A decent amount of weight is desirable, though. Size will be determined by your grip type. Sensor types will affect responsiveness and what surfaces it will work best on. A higher polling rate means it scans for movement more often and is smoother, but past a certain point it's somewhat a gimmick. More detailed info about sensors here. Connection type mainly boils down to wired or wireless. Wired mice never have to be recharged and can be lighter, but suffer from cable drag. This can be mostly circumvented by using a mouse bungee, which holds the cable for you. A wireless mouse is free of cable drag and makes the desk look cleaner, but is weighed down by a battery and has to be recharged or have the batteries replaced. Batteries can be either rechargable built-in lithium batteries or the simple AA or AAA batteries you find in remotes. A built-in lithium battery will make life easier in that you can just plug in the mouse for recharging and use it like a wired mouse, but eventually lithium batteries lose their ability to hold a charge. You can just keep using it as a wired mouse at that point, but that won't happen for a very long time, at least 3 or 5 years. Switch types (the clicks) can be a big impact as well, but most good mice will have good switches already.
Low-tier mice will be $20-$40 USD. Mid-tier mice will range from $40-$60, and high-tier mice can be up to about $200. It is reccomendable to buy them secondhand, but they aren't relatively expensive, so you may as well buy new.

Headphones

Headphones have a massive set of important aspects to look at, audiophile equipment is very easy to get carried away in. The simplest take on how accurate the headphones are is the frequency response curve of the drivers (the speakers inside). There are tons of other important specs, but the list is too big for this guide. Your main concerns aside from audio fidelity should be enclosure type (open or closed-back), weight, clamping force, build quality, connection type, and the microphone. Open back headphones allow for better breathing and sound stage (how large or wide and clear the audio is), they give a more natural sound. Closed-back headphones isolate noise, both in and out. You won't be hearing any noise around you and people nearby won't hear what you're listening to as easily. Weight and clamping force play part in how comfortable the headphones are to wear, a heavy clamping force will ensure they don't fall off, but can give you a headache. A light clamping force will make the headphones less of a pain to wear, but can more easily slip off. Many headphones have adjustable clamping force. Build quality comes down to how cheap they feel, how comfortable the pads sit on your ears, and how durable they are. This is another broad topic I won't be able to fit in this post. Connection type falls into wired, bluetooth, or 2.4GHz wireless. Wired will have the typical advantage of no recharging and lowered weight due to no battery. Bluetooth is a cheap option, but it has a very small bandwidth and the audio quality won't be as clean, especially if you plan to also have a microphone on it. 2.4GHz is the better wireless option as it is considered lag-free, longer distance, and has more bandwidth than bluetooth. The microphone is a something you will have to listen to reviews for, to see how it sounds. Poor microphones can sound muddy, scratchy, tinny, or polluted with background noise. Some people prefer to have a separate standalone microphone on a stand, which will sound much better. When you step into the more premium headphones, you will also want to pick up an external amp and dac. The fine details of that will also have to be left out of this post due to the vast semantics of it all. If your main purpose for the PC is a media platform, you should also look into planar magnetic headphones! They are top-notch, but come with a high price tag.
Low-tier headphones will be anywhere from $10-$40 USD. Mid-tier headphones can be from $60-$120. High-tier headphones can easily into the thousands. Buying secondhand is reccomendable.

UPS

Stands for uninterruptable power supply. It is vital to protecting your equipment, especially if your area is prone to surges or brownouts. It maintains a steady and clean supply of power for your equipment, and a better UPS will keep your equipment running for a bit in the event of power outages, giving you time to save and properly shut down. There are a lot of semantics that go into picking the right UPS, but APC has made a good summary of what to look at here. Make sure you account for a bit more than how much power you're actually going to use.
UPS pricing depends on the size and features you select, there isn't a good price range I can say. Don't buy these secondhand, they could have been abused and you don't want an unreliable power source, just like PSUs.
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